Read the text. Match paragraphs A – C with questions 1 – 4. One paragraph matches two questions.


(A) The debate in the USA about whether to start school later has been running for many years. Ask any American teenager arriving at school at 7.30 a.m. and they will tell you that it’s difficult to memorise chemical formulae or lists of vocabulary so early in the morning. Is it just laziness, or is there a biological reason for this? Studies by scientists in the UK show that teenagers naturally want to go to bed about two hours later than adults and also get up later. This trend begins at about the age of thirteen and continues right through the teenage years. The scientists conclude that students inevitably feel tired in the morning and will therefore perform worse at school before lunch.

(B) Schools in some US states have tested this theory, and the findings back up the science. By delaying the start of school by just one hour, academic achievement has risen, absenteeism has declined and cases of depression among teenagers have also fallen. One study that involved 9,000 students revealed that grades in maths, English and science all rose when school began at 8.35 a.m. or later. Studies in other countries such as Brazil, Italy and Israel also show that later start times improve learning.

(C) However, not everyone advocates changing the school timetable. They claim that it would cause a huge amount of disruption. Others are opposed to the change because students won’t have time for after-school activities or part-time jobs. However, one benefit of a later start time may yet convince the doubters. A study in Wyoming showed that car crashes among 16-18-year-olds fell by 70% after the start time was changed from 7.35 a.m. to 8.55 a.m. More studies need to be carried out before a definite link can be made between the number of accidents and the school start times, but it is undeniable that it is less safe drive feel sleepy.

In which paragraph does the author …

1) quote the results of a study that confirms the conclusions of British scientists? [(B)]

2) suggest that students might be safer if the school start time were changed? [(C)]

3) mention some practical problems that might result from a change in the start time? [(C)]

4) refer to evidence that shows that adults’ body clocks are different from those of teenagers? [(A)]